Kebudayaan Indonesia

Blandongan Temple Amulet


Blandongan Temple Amulet

Blandongan Temple is one of temples that is located in Batujaya Site which is predicted come from Tarumanegara Kingdom. Batujaya Site itself located between two villages, Segaran Village in Batujaya District and Telagajaya Village, Pakisjaya District, Karawang, West Java. The located of Batujaya Site is in alluvial plains with altitude around 4 m above the sea level. There is also Citarum River about 500 m to the west from the site. There are a lot of cultural heritages, from prehistoric time, Hindu-Budha time, until the period when Islam came to Indonesia which is proved by the statue that found around Citarum River.

Batujaya site cannot be separated from Tugu incription that found in Cilincing, North Jakarta. Tugu incription tells about King Purnawarman, a King of Tarumanegara Kingdom, who lived happily more than other kings. During his reign, King Purnawarman did Candrabhaga river excavation which passing through the capital city before reaching the sea. According Poerbatjaraka, the name of Candrabhaga, which is told in Tugu incription, is named from one of India River. Candrabhaga itself is close from the centre of Tarumanegara.

The study of Batujaya has been conducted since 1985 and it still continues until now. Lots of artifacts are found here, one of them is Blandongan temple amulet.

Some of people called amulet a votive tablet. Amulet itself is a signs of pilgrim when they come to a worship place and it use as a repellent reinforcement. The amulet of Blandongan temple found on the excavation of Blandongan temple, and in 1997, 2002, and 2003 other amulets are found.

Amulet in Blandongan temple is divided into two kinds, which are amulet with 6 statues without inscription and amulet with 6 statues and with inscription. Over all, the statues have some similarities, for example the shape, size, and the decoration. The only one that makes the statues different is only the inscription. The amulet of Blandongan temple has a round shape that looks like Sikhara (the top of the stupa) on the top of the temple. The top of amulet represents the three statues of Dhyani Budha Amitabha that sitting cross-legged and Dhyana Mudra (meditation) hand gesture. Thus, the low part of the temple represents three statues which one of them looks in sit position with dangling legs and Abhaya Mudra (refused the reinforcement) hand gesture. The statue flanked by two statues that are imaged in Tribhangga standing position.

On Budha mythology, the story that shows in the amulet tells about Sravasti. Sravasti is a story when Budha got a worldly problem then directly Brahmana and Cakara stood on the right and left side of Budha and. Thus, the two dragon’s king, Nanda and Upananda created a lotus shapes seat for Budha.

 According to Coedes study, amulet in Southeast Asia is divided into two types. The first type is amulet with relief characteristic that tells about Budha’s life in Pali kuna and Kamboja kuna language, which is predicted contemporaries with Dwarawati Kingdom in South Thailand in 6-7 century. The second type is the story of Budha and other figures which tell in Sanskrit language. This type represents Buddha Mahayana which is influenced by Pala, Nalanda, Burma, and Thailand in 8 century.

Based on Coedes’ study, the matery of Blandongan temple is the amulet first type because it looks like the amulet which is found in Khao Ok Dalu Phattalung in Thailand, with a same shape and scene like in Svarasvati story. It is also a possibility that the amulet relate to the Dwarawati era. Meanwhile, according to Casparis, the inscription on the Blandongan temple amulet use Palawa’s letter that is used in 5-6 century, so it can be concluded that most of Batujaya site appeared from 5 – 7 century.  

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